Core Network Protocol Stack for 5G in USA by 2022
Core Network Protocol Stack for 5G in USA by 2022
5G (Fifth Generation) will be the future standard of wireless technology for mobile broadband access, expected to be at least 100 times faster than today’s 4G and 10 times more energy efficient by 2020. It will also require many architectural changes to the network, including entirely new core network protocol stacks. This article explores the core network protocol stack changes required to make 5G networks possible in the US by 2022 as well as how they will impact business models, revenue streams and pricing strategies…
The New IP
One of the key components of 5g networks is an upgrade to the core network protocol.
The new IP standard, called IPv6, is specifically designed to support the higher throughput and enhanced reliability that 5g networks will need. In addition, it has been designed with security and scalability in mind.
This means that IPv6 should be able to ensure the stability and integrity of all data passed over the network while still meeting the increased demands for bandwidth from 5g networks.
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which oversees the development of international standards for wireless communications, released a 5G New Radio (5GNR) specification in June 2018.
The 5GNR specifications specify a set of protocols including the New IP (IPv6).
This release was followed by 3GPP’s approval of a Release 15 specification—known as 5GS—which defines architecture and procedures that are not specific to any particular transmission technology or frequency band.
The transport network layer specifies how data will be routed from one point to another.
The two predominant approaches are circuit switching and packet switching. Packet switching is the dominant approach for most wide-area networks (WANs).
The main advantage of packet switching is that packets can be routed on a demand basis, whereas with circuit switching, a connection must be set up before any data transmission can occur.
Circuit switching is more appropriate when data confidentiality and reliability are important, as it provides an end-to-end connection that assures privacy and avoids packet loss.
One of the disadvantages of packet switching is that each node along the way needs to examine each packet to determine its destination address.
In addition, packets switched may not take optimal paths due to topology changes and thus may require additional bandwidth.
A potential solution is application-based routing, which would allow nodes along the way only examine particular content headers such as those associated with voice or video.
5g core network protocol stack will be of a three-layer hierarchy: the physical layer, sub-layers, and MAC.
In the 5g core network protocol stack, the physical layer is responsible for encoding and decoding data packets to be transmitted through the air interface. It also handles tasks such as coding and decoding data packets.
The physical layer is divided into two sub-layers: A) RF Sub-layer which deals with modulation and demodulation of waveforms; B) Baseband Sub-layer which deals with encoding and decoding of waveforms (digital signals).
MAC provides services such as flow control, error detection, and correction, synchronization, packet acknowledgment, etc. It also does power management to ensure that the battery life is not drained unnecessarily.
Data Link Layers
It is predicted that the 5g core network protocol will be based on the L2 (Layer 2) and L5 (Layer 5) layers. When it comes to data link layer protocols, the most important are Link-layer Access Protocols (LAPs). The main reason they are necessary is that they provide some measure of error correction and flow control.
The following features should be included with Link-layer Access Protocols:
1. Error detection and correction
2. Flow control
3. Segmentation/ Reassembly
4. Multiplexing/ Demultiplexing
5. Unnumbered frames
The 5g core network protocol stack consists of five layers: the physical layer, the media access control (MAC) layer, the link layer, the transport layer, and the internet protocol (IP) layer.
The MAC sublayer is responsible for managing user access to a shared physical medium. The MAC sublayer can provide services to users such as access control, flow control, and error checking. The link layer operates on top of a telecommunications network’s data link level and provides logical connection points between nodes in a communications system. The transport layer manages connections between nodes that operate at higher layers of the protocol stack and ensures the delivery of packets across Internet Protocols (IP). Layer 4 is considered to be TCP/UDP while Layer 5 is considered to be ICMP or IP.
The 5g core network protocol stack will have the following: 1. Physical Layer (5g NR PHY) 2. Medium Access Control Layer (MAC) 3. Radio Link Control (RLC) 4. Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) 5. Radio Resource Control (RRC) 6. Security and Authentication 7. Application 8. Session
5g core network protocol stack will comprise five layers: Layer 1, Radio Access; Layer 2, Core Transport; Layer 3, IP Packet Core; Layer 4, Data Link & Physical.
The 5g core network protocol stack is the latest version of the core network protocol. It will use a new radio access technology that provides higher bandwidth and better reliability. The following diagram shows how these different layers will interact with each other:
Layer-1: Physical Layer
This layer converts electromagnetic waves into digital data to transmit over the air interface. This is done by modulating a carrier with digital bits and transmitting it over an antenna at a certain frequency.
Layer-2: Data Link Layer The data link layer is responsible for packaging data from upper layers into frames and sending them out onto the wireless medium (e.g., air). On receipt, it removes frames from the wireless medium, unpackages them, and delivers them to the upper layers.
The 5g core network protocol stack will be the backbone of this new technology. It will allow a near-limitless amount of data to be transferred at a much faster rate, with lower latency and more reliability. 5g is being researched, but it’s not widely used yet. As technology progresses, so does our need for speed and better connections.